Old Testament: Part 4

Minor Prophets: Hosea - Malachi


The Northern Kingdom of Israel enjoyed moderate success from conquering neighboring kingdoms, but they were spiritually bankrupt on the inside. In the Book of Hosea, God sends Hosea to Israel during King Jeroboam II's reign to admonish them of their wrongs in perpetual idol worship and dependence on outside nations.


The Book of Joel accounts for justice over evil in a form that's unique to the other Old Testament prophets. Unlike the other Books, Joel tells us a story about a terrible plague of locusts that seems to traverse across time.


The Book of Amos is an intriguing Scripture from a unique individual, Amos, a shepherd and fig tree farmer dwelling in southern Judah who is called by God to go to Bethel and announce warnings of judgment to the northern kingdom of Israel.


The smallest Old Testament account, the Book of Obadiah is a vision written by The Lord's prophet known as Obadiah, who prophesied against Israel's relative nation Edom.


If you have ever attended church, Sunday school, or bedtime story sessions as a child, you have likely heard about the story in the Book of Jonah at some point. But, the prophet Jonah's account of remarkable experiences with storms at sea, being eaten by a fish, and plants that miraculously grow and die in a day have lessons that go much deeper than what is on the surface.


The book of Micah describes God's coming judgment on Israel because of its rebellion. The Assyrian Empire and then the Babylon Empire would destroy the nation and leave Jerusalem in ruin


The book of Nahum is a collection of poems announcing the downfall of Assyria, one of Israel's worst oppressors. Referencing Daniel, Exodus, Isaiah and Babylon, Nahum shows us that the destruction of Nineveh and Assyria are examples of how God works in history in every age.


The book of Habakkuk is a compilation of the prophet's laments, not an accusation against Israel and its sin or a message to the people on God's behalf like some of the other prophetic books. Instead, Habakkuk questions God's goodness because he sees so much injustice, evil and tragedy in the world. He's also concerned because God plans to send Babylon, an intensely evil nation, to judge Israel.


The book of Zephaniah contains some of the most intense images of God's justice and love found in the prophetic books. Zephaniah warns Israel and the surrounding nations that the day of the Lord is near. God will judge the nations with a burning fire as He purifies them from sin, evil and violence.


The people of Israel were conquered by Babylon because they broke their covenant with God through idolatry and injustice. The book of Haggai was written 70 years after this prophesied exile and recounts the experience of a small group of Israelites, led by Joshua and Zerubbabel, who had returned to rebuild Jerusalem.


Almost 70 years after the exile, the Israelites were experiencing hardships and wondered if prophetic promises of a New Jerusalem would ever be fulfilled. The book of Zechariah answers this question through several dream visions.


One hundred years after exile, the Israelites who had returned to Jerusalem were as evil and corrupt as their ancestors. The book of Malachi addresses their corruption regarding issues like sacrifices, marriage and tithing. It also affirms that God does love His people and will fulfill prophecy.